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Characteristics of the Puritanism Period in American Literature
Puritanism Period: The spark of the English Reformation began in Sixteenth Century to reform the Church of England. Puritans believed in God and were very religious (Puritanism). During this time era there are authors who are well known for their publications such as poems, jounals, and novels. Each author has a purpose to their writing such as glorifying God based on their beliefs (Reuben).

  • Puritans: English speaking Protestants (people who believe in Christ outside the Roman Catholic or Orthodox churches). They were middle class and well educated and children of the Covenant (Reuben).
  • Puritan Writing: Transform, make relevant, and glorify God.
  • Puritans Beliefs:"Total Depravity, Unconditional election, limited atonement, irrresistable grace, and perseverance of the saints." (Reuben).

Link to Google Map about Puritan Period of Early American Literature

Resources about Puritan Period

1. Bremer, Frances J. Puritanism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, Inc. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=mb7c68hAwKEC&lpg=PP1&dq=Puritanism&lr&pg=PR11#v=onepage&q&f=false.>
The book presents everyday Puritan life based on thier belief in God. The book also explains the issues that both men and woman had in the Seventeenth Century. After reviewing the provided pages of the book it gave evidence of credibility. The book provides a historical background of the church of England and how the Puritans came to be and had the belief in God. The Site provides pages from the book in order for public viewers to have a visual of the book.

3. "Chapter One: Early American and Colonial Period to 1776." Outline of American Literature. December 2006. USINFO.STATE.GOV.

< http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/oaltoc.htm.>

The page offers well-written, organized insights on the Puritanism period as well as lists a few authors of the period. The list of authors includes a short biography and titles of their their work. The page presents information to those interested; teachers, students, or public for research use or personal interests. It provides detailed information about the beginning period of Puritanism, how it began and developed. The authors listed are significant figures as they aid in the establishment of beliefs and principles of the Puritanistic period through their writings and teachings. Among the list of authors is William Bradford, one of the writers of the Mayflower Compact. The site offers help by listing the authors, defining the period, mentioning the author's works and influences. The theme derived from the information provided would be Identity. The Puritans were strict believers of God. Puritans were identified with spirituality, where they "interpreted all things and events as symbols with deeper spiritual meanings." This page has offered great information and it also appears to be credible as it is maintained by a bureau of the Department of State and is up to date.

4. Seiferth, Michael S. "Travel Literature In Early Virginia." The Seventeenth Century: Echoes Of The Renaissance And Reformation . Related Resources on American Literature on The Web. 3 June 2007 < http://lonestar.texas.net/~mseifert/amlit1.html.>
The page contains notes by an English professor defining the writings and influences of the significant authors of the Puritanism period as well as a historical analysis of the period. The site offers a view into the period through the historical analysis. It also includes authors works and contributions that had effects in society during his/her time. Although the site fails to address a date of publication, the information contained, however, appear helpful to those who are interested: students, teachers, researchers, or any interested individual in the subject of early american literature and its history. What is most appealing about the website, in one's own opinion, is that the site offers a brief biography about the significant writers during the 16th and 17th century and their influences, as individuals and through the writings and other accomplishments, on society.


5..Miller, Kevin; Galli, Mark. “The Puritans: Behind the Myths”. EBSCO Host. 1994. June 2, 2007. < http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/ehost/detail?vid=13&hid=17&sid=16915483-5ec4-437d-a981-b2edfd77df83%40sessionmgr2.>
This article is an interview conducted with an expert of the puritan experience. Dr. Stout is a professor of American Christianity at Yale University. The purpose of the article is to look at puritan life more in depth. The puritan period is defined by Dr. Stout with dates, he cites the years 1629-1730. This article is helpful for our purpose, since it gives a different perspective on puritan life. Dr. Stout seeks to dispel some of the misconceptions developed over the years. Many believe that the puritans were boring and solemn people. They were deep feeling and very religious, but were passionate about their lives and mission. Yale University is one of the premier universities in the United States, and a leading university in the world. They hire the best academics to teach their classes, such as Dr. Stout.

6. Lindholdt, Paul. "Early American Culture and the Canon." Sewanee Review 100.4 (Fall 1992): 675. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Mesa Community College Library, Mesa, AZ. 3 June 2007. < http://ezp.mc.maricopa.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9306106567&site=ehost-live.>
In this Article written for the Sewanee Review, Paul Lindholdt reflects on history and its presentation in literature. While not focused specifically on Puritan literature, much of the commentary concerns Puritan writing. The author is discussing how history has been conveyed to us either romantically, passionately or strictly dry and scientifically. Also how best to merge those elements so as not to alienate readers yet preserve accuracy. We learn that the Puritan writers, firmly under the grips of their religious beliefs, tended to relay cultural information in a compelling, flowering manner, full of imagination. Factual depictions would be filtered through the Puritan framework, leaving at best a highly selective interpretation. All around the Puritans were writers offering widely different viewpoints, but the Puritan absolute would not allow for an intermingling of these angles. This article aims theological professors concerning the question of what is or is not appropriate to teach or read when studying these matters. Lindholdt seems concerned with finding the right balance of single-purpose study and a multidisciplinary approach. Though the main content of this article fails to apply directly to Puritan literature, I feel there is enough gleaning of the Puritan mindset in their writings to be a useful reference. The nature of this article is mostly commentary and opinion, but the facts used in the author’s position are well documented. This analysis has been printed in a university literary review publication, so I give it enough credit as a valuable source to be of use.

7. Reuben, Paul P. "Chapter 1: Early American Literature to1700 - A Brief Introduction." PAL: Perspectives in American Literature- A Research and Reference Guide. WWW URL: <http://web.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap1/1intro.html.> (login 06/03/2007).
Dr. Reuben presents here a helpful outline to introduce the elements of Puritan literature in early America. Beginning with an overview of the belief system, we see the structure under which this literature would be created. The strictness of these beliefs and rules form the foundation of the literature that would be produced. Puritan writing, as in the rest of Puritan life, is purposeful and direct. The overarching purpose for these writings is aimed at better understanding God in order to better serve and to apply moral duties in everyday life. The literature would be comprised of themes ranging from commentary on the idealistic life to practical applications of these ideals in real life. The literature of this period, heavily dependent on biblical guidance, would eventually be replaced as American culture shifted to more rational approaches to idealistic questions. Dr. Reuben points out several main aspects of what the Puritan movement left American culture, both positive and negative. Puritan philosophy on morality, individual freedoms, work and death reveal much about the life and writings of the time. This site is very helpful for deciding whether a piece of literature or an author would fall into the scope of our examination. By giving us a broader framework of Puritan literature, the site offers us much more than a simple timeline to evaluate the works (style, intent, themes, etc). This site is an online reference guide aimed at providing a breadth of information about American literature to students and the public. As a research project headed by a national university, this site should satisfy any requirements for valid sourcing.

8.Bowden, Henry W., and Mark A. Noll. "Puritanism, Puritans." Mb-Soft.Com. 31 Dec. 2006. Elwell Evangelical Dictionary. 9 June 2007 <http://mb-soft.com/believe/txc/puritani.htm.>
The main purpose of this website is to present information about Puritanism, including the history and notable Puritans. The dates given in the history portion of the website were corresponding to the time era, therefore authors or texts were suitable. This website was helpful in learning about authors with the section provided about notable Puritans. Names and background information about authors were accessible. Famous texts written during the era was also provided. The website is helpful by interpreting the theme based on the information given. This website is credible, since it contains a complete bibliography. It also provides a full page of their copyright information. The website also has information about who the authors are and what organization they are associated with.

9. McWilliams, John. New England's Crisis and Cultural Memory: Literature, Politics, History, Religion 1620-1860. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. New England's Crisis and Cultural Memory. 6 June 2007 <http://site.ebrary.com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/lib/mesa/Top?channelName=mesa&cpage=1&f00=text&frm=smp.x&hitsPerPage=10&id=10131716&layout=document&p00=puritanism&sortBy=score&sortOrder=desc>
The main purpose of this source is to give information about the literature, politics, history, of Puritanism from 1620-1860. Since the information is from 1620 through 1860 one can see that the information fits into the specific era. The source is assist with finding reading, interoperating authors, text, and themes that provide information about the subjects. The source is credible containing information about who the author is and who published the source. A bibliography is also included in the source.

10. Atkins, Scott E. 22 Jan 02. “The American Sense of Puritan: The Pilgrims and Plymouth Plantation". University of Virginia 15 June 2007 <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/PURITAN/purmain.html.>
"Puritan". Msn Encarta. <http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/puritanism.html.> 15 June 2007
This website is designed by the American Studies group at the University of Virginia. The purpose of the website is to provide historical information to be viewed by librarians, teachers, parents and schools. The history and criticisms are outlined, along with the links of authors of the Puritanism are available to research. By reading about the Puritans, I was able to find the authors of this time period and relate the theme diversity and eccentricity and the literary term imagery. The Puritans and the Pilgrims were similar in some nature. It is a credible website because of the extensive study going into it. It lists all the References that were used as the resources for this webpage. Puritanism is the doctrine of the Puritans system of belief. Msn Encarta’s online dictionary defines the word Puritan as “Protestant: a member of a group of Protestants in 16th- and 17th-century England and 17th-century America who believed in strict religious discipline and called for the simplification of acts of worship” (Encarta). NatalieT

11. Campbell, Donna M. "Puritanism in New England." Literary Movements. 21 May 2007. 14 June 2007. <http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld//purdef.htm.>
Author Donna Campbell, writing this historical information for Washington State’s official website, gives a brief historical account of the Puritans, along with a description of their religious ideals and motives for breaking away from the Church of England. She even relates two distinct versions of Puritans, writing, “Although the word is often applied loosely, "Puritan" refers to two distinct groups: "separating" Puritans, such as the Plymouth colonists, who believed that the Church of England was corrupt and that true Christians must separate themselves from it; and non-separating Puritans, such as the colonists who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony, who believed in reform but not separation.” In addition to a historical and definitional treatment of the Puritans, she relates some aspects in which they differed from mainstream Christianity at the time, namely, their belief in “predestination,” or the idea that only God can determine who will be saved, and who will not.

12. “Puritanism." Encyclopædia Britannica.2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 June 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9061955.>
Puritanism was a movement, a belief in the 16th and 17th centuries in which the purity of individuals was based on one’s faith and God’s will. A person’s self worth and prosperity in life, in everyday living was a direct result of their dedication to God. As an arising reformation to life in England, these beliefs were brought to the early colonies of New England and are prominent in the early writings from this time period. This website is drawn from the Encyclopedia Britannica, which is helpful with providing easy, general, understanding, and definitions to basically anything, but also credible. This website shows that a religion centered lifestyle is key to this specific literary period, which makes classifying authors and literary work relevant to Puritanism much easier.

13. Clark, Michael. "Puritanism" The University of California Irvine School of Humanities. 5 June. 2008 < http://www.humanities.uci.edu/mclark/Core2002/Pix/Puritanism.html >. This website has a great description of the history of Puritanism and how the literature came about. The author also discusses the general Puritan beliefs, and how they relate to the literature. Based on what this author says, I would assume that for a work to be deemed Puritan it generally must be based on religion, particularly divine promise and the threat of imminent failure. This website has excerpts from a few Puritan works and has a heavy focus on Puritan poetry as well, which is useful because it highlights more than the typical sermons of the period. I believe the source to be credible as it is posted as a resource on a university website, by a department of the school focused solely on humanities.

14. Trudeaux Zoe, “Literary analysis: Puritan ethics as depicted in early American literature” 5 June 2008 < http://www.helium.com/items/1050451-literary-analysis-puritan-ethics-as-depicted-in-early-american-literature>. This article describes puritan believes and how it affected American literature in the 17th century. I found this sight very useful because it describes each author thoroughly including the author’s place in society and their role in the puritan time period. Links to articles by other authors on this website about the puritan time period are found at the bottom of the page which provides more information. I believe this information is creditable because the author has a BA in English.

15. “Puritan”. Wikipedia. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 12 June 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puritan>.
The web site Wikipedia.org is a site similar to an encycopedia. It has pages within its site for almost anything/word you can think of. The site allows people to add their two cents to each web site they believe they know more information about. Although this might sound like the site is not credible, there are people who monitor the site and make sure it is accurate. Most of the people who edit the sites are professors, etc. who have a lot of knowledge about the subject. The "Puritan" site explains the history of this time period. It also list important people/authors during the puritanism period. Each person that it menchions, it also gives a breif history about the person and what made them so important during this period. It also breaks down the different times within this period. The site is very good if you are looking for general information about anything within the period.

16.
Spurr, John. “English Puritanism, 1603-1689”. Palgrave Publishers 1998. Mesa Community College Ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/lib/mesa/Top?channelName=mesa&cpage=1&docID=5001699&f00=text&frm=smp.x&hitsPerPage=20&layout=document&p00=puritanism+in+literature&sortBy=score&sortOrder=desc.> Although this book has a primary focus on English Puritanism, it still gives good definitions on Puritan beliefs and lifestyle. Puritanism in England and America were very similar. It is helpful because it highlights everytime the word Puritanism is used in the text which allows you to read for important information without having to read every word. It is a credible source because it has been published and is supported by the Ebrary which is used for purely educational purposes.

17. Puritanism. 15 June 2008 <http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/novel_18c/defoe/puritanism.html#puritanism >. This website gives a very good introduction to the basic beliefs of Puritanism as started by John Calvin. It started in the 16th Century to reform the Church of England and was a highly religious time period. This website also has a link which goes into further detail on the main concepts of Puritanism which I found very helpful. It is credible because it is an edu website not used for profit and it has been updated fairly recently.

18.Haefeli, Evan. “America Discovers English Puritanism.” Reviews in American History 31.1: 2003. JSTOR. 18 June 2008. < http://www.jstor.org >
This article is a book review. It details exactly what Puritans were. The article says that Puritans were Calvinists who left the Church of England because they were dissatisfied with certain tasks. Apparently Puritans never actually called themselves Puritans; they considered themselves Protestants. This speaks to how humble they were on a personal level. The author notes that the theology varied from location to location but all Puritans were very pious and the God was at the center of their lives. This helps me to understand Puritanism in literature because I will be much more aware of the theme of the texts I will be reading. This article is credible because it has a stated author and is a review/summary of a cited, copyrighted book.

19.Campbell, Donna. “Puritanism in New England.” Literary Movements 2007. 18 June 2008. < http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/purdef.htm >
This article describes Puritanism in New England. It explains that there was a distinct point in time when the Puritans began to break away from the Church of England. This was partially because the Church began to tolerate “diverse religious beliefs.” The author goes on to describe major points in Puritan theology, such as their various covenants with God. Puritans believed that God was the ultimate authority in all things human and legal. This article helped with my understand of Puritan literature because it helped to understand where the authors of the texts will be coming and what they will be writing about. This article is credible because it has a stated author and copyright, and is from a .edu.
20.Heim, William J. “Cotton Mather: Overview.” Reference Guide to American Literature. Ed. Jim Kamp. St. James Press: 1994. Literature Resource Center. June 19, 2008.
This article is a general review of Cotton Mather’s writing style. It talks about how he often wrote with a very pompous tone and that his attempts at chronicling history were often very biased. However, the author states that from a less historical point of view, one can look at Mather’s writings as pure religious texts.His practice in writing sermons can be seen in his works. The article notes that Mather was generally more well known for the importance of his name than his work. This article helped me to understand Mather’s writings and what they were about. It also helped me to understand more about the Puritan era because of the themes in Mather’s works. This article is credible because it has a state author and publishing date.


21. Arner, Robert D, “The Tenth Muse: Overview.” Reference Guide to American Literature. Ed. Jim Kamp. St James Press: 1994.
This article is a review of Anne Bradstreet’s book of poemsThe Tenth Muse. The author notes that, this being Bradstreet’s first attempt at published poetry, there is nothing in it that is particularly distinguishable. The general idea the author is making in this article is that while Bradstreet was articulate in her writing, there was nothing of note in the content of this first collection. However, looking at the works that followed, it was clear that this was just a transitional work where Bradstreet was getting the feel for writing. This article helped me to take a closer look at Bradstreet’s poemTo My Dear and Loving Husband. It also helped me to understand a bit more about Puritan living. This article is credible because it has a stated and published author.
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22.Gura, Philip. "American Primer" (Book Review). EBSCO Host. June 3 2009
<https://ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login?url=https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=37012756&site=ehost-live>
The main purpose of the website is a book review of the books on Early American literature. Early American beliefs of Puritans are discussed. Including Calvinism’s five basic points T.U.L.I.P and other essential doctrines to the Puritan church. The book talks about men like Jonathon Edwards and others before him that clearly put this in the late age of Puritanism and is more in the early 1700’s, but talks about the beliefs of the Puritans even further back than that. The review helps you understand the importance of religion in the Puritan day. The review of the book covers much of American History but specifically the first two chapters which the writer reviews are related to the Puritans. The site is credible because it is EBSCO with reviewed credited sources.
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23."Laud, William." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 June 2009 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-4084>.
This site is an article on the “Persecution of the Puritans”. It helps in understanding their desires to become more like God and their desire to escape persecution. Just showing that their core beliefs were rooted in religion. The Puritans clearly did not want to identify with England in its religious practices and wanted to be a unique entity. They wanted religious freedom a unique identity. The website mentions several dates between 1600-1730 clearly identifying it with the Puritanism period. This website is credible because it is peer reviewed and was part of the MCC library database.
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24. Christianity Today International. "The English Puritans.." Christian History & Biography (Winter2006 2006): 26-27. History Reference Center. EBSCO. 4 June 2009 <https://ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login?url=https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=khh&AN=20005745&site=ehost-live.>
The main point of this website was to map out the major events that took place during the Puritan time period. The general criteria that was used to define the Puritan literary period was the time between the years 1509 (when King Henry VIII became King of England) and 1691 (the death of Richard Baxter). This resource was particularly helpful in making sense of the authors and texts associated with this time because it gave a timeline of the events that were taking place around the times when the authors became popular as well as when the texts were written. I found this to be an extremely credible source. Not only was this just one link among 15 other valuable articles, but all of the information that was provided was thoroughly cited and other links were provide for further research.
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25. “Puritanism and American Literature.” D.J. McAdam. DEC 2004. D.J. McAdam. 4 June 2009. <http://www.djmcadam.com/puritanism.html.>
The main purpose of this website was to give a history of the Puritan era, such as how it came about as well as the literature style of the time. The criterion that was used to define the Puritan period literature was literature that was written roughly around the years 1640 and 1750. This website was helpful in making sense of the texts because it gave background as to how the writing style was at the time and general facts about literature of the Puritans. Although there was no clear author for this specific article on the website, I would still call it a credible source because it offered numerous other articles on American Literature, other time periods, and many other topics.
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26. Gildrie, Richard P. "Puritanism in America, 1620-1750 (Book Review)." American Historical Review 83.4 (Oct. 1978): 1083. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 3 June 2009 <https://ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login?url=https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5602593&site=ehost-live. >
This source came from EBSCOhost, which is a research database that has hundreds of thousands of articles, book reviews, peer-reviewed journals, etc… There was no specific way to pinpoint information about a period in history. To find information about Puritan period in America I typed “Puritan period in America” in the search box and read different articles to find one that helped my understanding of the period. This article is a book review of a book that I hope to track down online or in a public library before I finish my final paper. But if I can’t this book review has given me a list of authors who would be perfect to use for it. EBSCOhost is a creditable website as I found it through the link that was posted in this course’s syllabus.

27. John McWilliams "Puritanism: The Sense of an Unending" The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature. Jay Parini. © 2004, 2005 Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Arizona State University. 3 June 2009 <http://www.oxford-americanliterature.com/entry?entry=t197.e0241>

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature is a database that has a collection of various articles that all focus on American literature. One can type in one word, name, or title (i.e.“Puritanism” or “William Bradford”) and find articles that are centered on that topic. The article that I have found to help define Puritanism gives me modern examples of writing about the time period and a few examples of works written during the time period that reflect societies way of thinking. This site is creditable because it the original source of this articles publication is Oxford University Press, a well established reliable source.
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28. Heyrman, Christine Leigh. “Puritanism and Predestination.” Divining America, TeacherServe©. National Humanities Center. 26 June 2009. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/puritan.htm

This website provides background knowledge on Puritanism along with ways to lead student discussions in classrooms and information on debates between historians. Not only does this site act as a portal for information on the literary movement but it provides teachers with strategies as how to lead discussions on this topic within the classroom. Heyrman explains how the Puritans were a group of religious reformers who shared Calvinist theology. He then continues to describe the Puritans in Britain as well as the United States and how they both sought to cleanse corrupt and sinful practices in culture. As an aspiring teacher I particularly liked the section on guiding student discussion. She suggests to pull out all stops in order to convey the message of Puritanism and once students get it, they will be shouting out opinions. This website helped me understand Puritanism and what they aimed to do during their time. This is a credible website.
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29. Matthews, Dr. Terry. “Lecture three: Puritanism in America”. Religious Life in the United States. 26 June 2009. <http://www.wfu.edu/%7Ematthetl/perspectives/three.html>
This website is actually a lecture from Dr. Terry Matthews and his course “Religious Life in the United States” at Wake Forest University. He divides his lecture into three sections: Three wings of Puritanism, the lack of religious toleration and some reasons why the effort to create a Puritan commonwealth failed. In the first section he simply provides an in depth background on the Puritans. He starts off by saying that despite all the negativism Puritans have received, they simply sought to order all things unto God. He explains the three wings were Presbyterians on the right wing, the Pilgrims on the left wing and the Puritans were at the center. When discussing the lack of religious toleration, he mentions many prominent names known throughout history, Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson etc. This website was extremely helpful in understand the Puritans. Matthews provided a plethora of information in an easy to read manner that allowed me to understand the concepts and history easier. This is a credible website .


Responses to Resources:

1. Heather Mitra: I found entries 11 and 12 particularly helpful in describing the main tenets of Puritan belief. Clearly an author's worldview influences his/her writing, so having this background information is useful in understanding the attitudes of the characters toward each other and the world around them.
2. Heather Mitra: Resource #6 seems to be a very valuable one. I learned a lot just by reading the summary. When reading Puritan literature, it helps to understand that religious beliefs affected every aspect of the people's lives. Whereas some of their thougths and actions may seem unusual to us today, if we contextualize them we can see why people were motivated to behave or write in a certain way.

30. Campbell, Donna M. "Puritanism in New England." Literary Movements. 21 May 2007. 20 June 2008. <http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld//purdef.htm.> This is a great resource on Puritanism in American literature. It discusses the reasons why Puritan's came to America and their background before. Then it goes on to look at different aspects of their writing. It is very extensive and well written. It is updated routinly.

31. Gaustad, Edwin S. "Quest for Pure Christianity." Christian History 1994: 7-8. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOhost. Mesa Community College, Mesa. 25 June 2009 <https://ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login?url=https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9403147549&site=ehost-live.>
The purpose of this article is to discuss the “mission” of the Puritans from its beginnings through their pilgrimage to America. Puritanism began in England in attempt to purify the Catholic church. They put great emphasis on literacy because the bible was extremely important to them. An author from this period is very likely to use biblical references in his or her texts. This source was helpful in understanding the puritan people and their goals. It clarified why the authors put so much emphasis on Christianity in their texts. This source is credible because it was published in a Christian history magazine by a professor of history from the University of California.

32. Thomson, David (English writer). "The Antinomian Crisis: prelude to Puritan missions." Early American Literature 38.3 (Fall 2003): 401(36). Academic OneFile. Gale. Mesa Community College. 26 June 2009
<http://find.galegroup.com.ezp.mc.maricopa.edu/itx/start.do?prodId=AONE.>
The purpose of this source is to discuss how Puritanism was introduced to the Native Americans in the 1640’s and how this form of Puritanism differed from the original version. The Puritanism that became American Puritanism had been reworked by the antinomian crisis and allowed multiple orthodoxies “this variant allowed wide latitude for fashioning a vibrant, autonomous, indigenous Puritanism”. A Puritan text or author will focus on religion. This source was helpful because it really related how Puritanism affected the American Indians, which applied greatly to the works of Mary Rowlandson. Additionally it’s discussion on Native Americans and the expansion of Puritanism shined a new light on how the frontier really formed and changed. This site is credible because it included a long works cited and was published in an accredited academic journal.


Puritanism

Example Image: Digital image. Learn NC. Web. 3 June 2010. <http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/
uploads/2008/03/
embarkation_pilgrims.jpg>.

Early American Puritan Authors


Puritans. Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fy1IOIlpKaw&feature=related>.


"Unknown" Period Reflections




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